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中国油气资源调查工作速览

2015-10-21 0:00:00 来源:中国矿业报

油气资源是国家重要战略资源,事关经济社会发展和国家安全。党中央和国务院高度重视,强调要立足国内,不断提高油气资源保障能力。由此,中国惟一一支公益性油气地质调查专业队伍——中国地质调查局油气资源调查中心应运而生。

根据“三定”方案,油气调查中心主要职责和任务包括:开展石油、天然气资源基础地质调查,重点地区油气资源战略调查评价以及相关综合研究;开展页岩气、天然气水合物、煤层气、油页岩、油砂等非常规油气资源调查评价及相关综合研究;承担海洋地质战略研究、工作部署研究及相关综合研究;开展油气资源调查评价新技术、新方法、新理论的研究、引进、示范与推广;承担油气资源调查评价相关技术标准研究工作;开展油气资源调查评价相关信息化建设与成果资料服务;开展油气资源调查评价相关国际合作与交流。

Oil and gas are important national strategic resources which is related to economic and social development and national security. Party Central Committee and the State Council attach great importance to it and emphasize to improve the supporting ability of oil and gas resources based on the domestic condition. Thus, Oil and Gas Survey (OGS) under China Geological Survey, the only non-profit team to investigate oil and gas resources in China, is established at such a moment.

The main responsibilities and tasks of OGS is to carry out:

1) investigation and evaluation of strategic oil and gas resources in key areas and related comprehensive study; investigation on shale gas, gas hydrates, coalbed methane, oil shale, oil sands and other unconventionals and related comprehensive study;

2) strategic marine geology research, deployment research and related comprehensive study;

3) the research, introduction, demonstration and promotion of new technologies, new methods and new theories on oil and gas survey;

4) oil-and-gas-related technical standards, information platform and data services;

5) international cooperation and communication associated with oil and gas survey.

方向和思路 Direction and Strategy

油气资源调查工作的定位是坚持“四性”,即基础性、公益性、战略性和前瞻性;突出“四新”,即新区、新领域、新层系、新类型。

总体思路是开展全盆地研究、油气基础地质调查与战略选区调查,主攻非常规矿种(其中页岩气为重点),兼顾常规油气,主动、全面、实时、高效地为社会提供油气地质基础信息服务。

The working principles of OGS is insisting on”Four properties”: foundamental, public welfare, strategic and forward-looking with the highlights on ”Four New”: new area, new field, new strata and new type.

The overall strategy is to carry out basin research; to investigate basic oil-and-gas-related geological survey and strategic selection of key areas; to focus on both unconventional ( particularly shale gas) and conventional oil and gas; to provide basic information service of oil and gas to public in a active, comprehensive and real-time way.

从数字看 View through figures

2012年~2014年,中国地质调查局油气资源调查中心承担各类项目86余项,货币工作量约8.5亿元。其中,2012年该中心承担各类地矿项目6项、横向课题7项,经费合计6220万元;2013年承担各类地矿项目27项、横向课题及市场项目7项,经费合计30521万元。2014年代管地矿项目20个,承担各类地矿项目39项、横向课题及市场项目4项,经费合计48567.47万元。3年来,该中心完成的实物工作量有:野外石油地质路线调查5809千米,野外地质剖面实测427千米;二维地震采集1654.9千米,二维地震数据处理解释17043.8千米;高精度重磁测量1047.24千米,大地电磁1228.74千米,时频电磁测深26千米,音频大地电磁测深142千米;化探504点;完成钻井36口、浅井8口,累计完成进尺55330.93米;岩心观察和老井复查166口;样品测试分析共37702项次。

2015年,该中心货币工作量突破8.3亿元,目前正处于紧张的野外工作阶段,同时也获得多项新发现。

Oil and Gas Survey undertook more than 86 projects worth of RMB 850 millions from 2012 to 2014. In specific, OGS undertook 6 mineral projects, 7 crosswise projects with total funding of 62.2 million RMB in 2012; undertook 27 mineral projects, 7 crosswise and market projects with total funding of 305.21 million RMB in 2013; hosted 20 mineral projects and undertook 39 mineral projects, 4 crosswise and market projects with total funding of 485.6747 million RMB in 2014. In this 3 years, OGS finished geological routes investigation as many as 5809 kilometers, field profile log 427 kilometers; collected 1654.9 kilometers 2D seismic line, processed and interpreted 17043.8 kilometers of 2D seismic data; measured high-resolution gravity and magnetic for 1047.24 kilometers, MT for 1228.74 kilometers, time-frequency electromagnetic bathymetry for 26 kilometers, acoustic magnetotelluric bathymetry for 142 kilometers; geochemical prospecting 504 points; completed 36 deep drills and 8 shallow drills with a total drilling footage of 55,330.93 meters; observed cores and old wells for 166; testedand analyzed samples for 37702 times totally.

Currency workload of OGS breaks 830 million RMB in 2015 with most of the projects staging into field work. Several new discoveries were gained.

从成果看 Discoveries review

新区、新层系:

松辽盆地西部外围突参1井钻获轻质原油,开辟油气勘探新阵地;鄂尔多斯盆地东南部宜参1井获取了较好的油气显示状况,压裂试气获得日产1.5万立方米的工业气流,揭示奥陶系风化壳勘探良好前景;西藏伦坡拉盆地古近系首获厚层正常原油,揭开油气勘探新序幕;南祁连盆地木里坳陷首次钻获油气,开辟油气勘探新战场;准噶尔盆地南缘山前带二叠系发现厚油层,开拓油气勘探新领域;塔里木盆地柯坪1井钻获良好油气显示,引起石油公司高度关注。

新类型、新领域:

南华北盆地太康隆起西部新区上古生界钻探发现多层气测异常;祁连山冻土区再次钻获天然气水合物;湘西北复杂构造区下寒武统钻探发现页岩气;鄂尔多斯盆地南部钻探发现长9段的高页岩气含量层段;钻探发现多处油砂、油页岩。

大型含油气盆地综合研究成果:

西部主要大型盆地碳酸盐岩油气资源选区研究取得新进展;塔里木盆地地震综合处理解释识别出新层系;油气综合研究和动态跟踪支撑政府管理。

New areas and new strata:

The “Tucan 1” in Western periphery of “Songliao Basin” drilled light crude, opening up a new window in oil and gas exploration; the “Yican 1”in Southeastern “Ordos Basin” gained industrial gas flow after hydraulic fracturing with the daily priduction up to 15,000 cubic meters, which indicates a promising exploration future of Ordovician weathering crust; Lunpola Basin in Tibet drilled thick layer of regular oil in Paleogene strata for the first time, which brings a new area of oil and gas exploration; the Muli Depression within South Qilian Basin drilled petroleum for the first time; thick layer of crude oil were drilled in Southern Part of Junggar Basin; moreover, The “Keping 1” in Tarim Basin got a good oil and gas show attracting attentions from which petroleum companies.

New types and new field:

South Northern China Basin Western Area revealed several layers of oil and gas show in Upper Paleozoic strata.

Qilian Mountain permafrost zone drilled gas hydrate for the second time; Shale gas was drilled in the structural complex in Cambian strata, Northwestern Hunan province; High gas content shale gas layers were discovered in Southern Ordos Basin; Discovered several points of oil sand and oil shale.

Results of “Comprehensive study of large oil and gas basins”:

Progress has been made on the area selection of Carbonate resources in the main large basins in Western China;

New strata were interpreted by integrated seismic interpretation in Tarim Basin;

Comprehensive oil and gas research and dynamic tracking regime strongly support government management.

其它成果 Other results

常规油气方面:

在伦坡拉盆地开展二维地震攻关,克服了盆地高寒、复杂地表及地下地质条件二维地震采集技术难题,获得了高品质地震资料,初步明确三角洲为下一步主要勘探目标,为实现伦坡拉盆地新生界中深层常规油气勘探突破夯实了基础。塔里木盆地柯坪冲断带地震宽线组合获得高品质的地震资料,为揭示深部地质结构和柯坪1井部署提供了依据;南羌塘盆地开展古地理格架恢复和白云岩储集层时空分布特征研究,为该盆地中生界油气勘探战略突破夯实了理论基础。

初步完善了中国西部主要大型碳酸盐岩盆地油气资源评价指标体系,首次系统划分了5种台地边缘类型,并建立了相应的模式,提出了不同盆地的勘探新领域。四川盆地、楚雄盆地、南华北盆地、突泉盆地、开封坳陷进一步明确潜在勘探领域和有利目标区;索伦-林西地区地质调查工作取得进展,发现存在广泛分布的中等烃源岩,初步认为资源潜力较大。

非常规油气方面:

柴达木盆地侏罗系第一口页岩气参数井“柴页1井”顺利实施,打开了柴达木盆地页岩气勘查开发的“一扇窗”。柴北缘侏罗系优选出10个远景区和10个有利区,估算了页岩气资源量,在西部中-下侏罗统发现厚层泥页岩,为进一步扩大柴达木盆地页岩气资源潜力奠定了基础。新疆博格达山北麓JZK1井发现重油线索,向南扩大二叠系芦草沟组勘探面积,为博格达山区油气调查和勘探突破提供了新线索和新方向。鄂尔多斯盆地明确了长7-长10段地层展布特征,初步证明除常规油气外,长7、长9段页岩气具有良好勘探潜力。川东南下古生界锁定页岩气有利发育层段。中下扬子地区上古生界油气资源调查评价和成藏条件综合研究表明该地区页岩油气、致密油气具有较好勘探前景,评价出3个有利目标区。湘西北地区优选出石门-慈利、茨岩塘2个页岩气远景区,通过实施二维地震勘探,发现2个页岩气有利目标区。开展了全国页岩气有利区块优选评价。中国非常规能源矿产成矿远景研究以煤层气、油页岩、油砂为重点,初步明确了非常规能源矿产成矿远景区,编制了全国1︰500万油页岩、油砂和煤层气资源远景区分布图。

天然气水合物与海洋地质方面:

祁连山冻土区再次钻获天然气水合物,扩展了其资源分布范围,不仅验证了地质、地球物理、地球化学等多学科综合找矿方法的有效性,同时也证实了对该区天然气水合物成藏控制因素与形成机理的初步认识;羌塘盆地QK-6和QK-7天然气水合物钻探试验井首次在羌塘盆地发现浅层气体,提供了天然气水合物找矿新线索;漠河冻土区揭示出烃类气体异常特征,为水合物勘查指明了方向,该区MK-2井查明多个烃类气体异常带,展示出漠河冻土区水合物勘查的广阔前景;首次提出祁连山冻土区天然气水合物成藏系统理论,并建立气源、运移与冻土耦合三位一体的成藏机制,有望成为天然气水合物钻探部署的一只“地质眼”;系统梳理了中国近海主要沉积盆地的石油地质特征,进一步丰富了中国陆相生油理论。

Conventional oil and gas:

Carried out the two-dimensional seismic research in Lunpola basin, overcome the constraints of basinal alpine, complex surface and subsurface structure, obtained a high-quality seismic data, focusing on delta as the next exploration target, lay a solid foundation to make breakthroughs of exploration in Cenozoic middle to deep strata; Preliminary improved the oil and gas evaluation system on large carbonate basin in western China, divided five types of platform edge for the first time, and established corresponding modes, and proposed new exploration areas in different basins; further identified the potential exploration areas and target areas in Sichuan Basin, Chuxiong Basin, Southern North China basin, Tuquan basin, Kaifeng Depression; found widespread moderate source rock in Suolun-linxi, preliminary view showed large resource potential.

Unconventional aspect:

The successful deployment of the first shale gas parameters well in Qaidam Basin opened the window of Qaidam Basin shale gas exploration and development; 10 potential areas and 10 favorable areas were selected from North Qaidam Jurassic strata and shale gas reserve was preliminarily estimated; A thick layer of mudrock in the Western Middle-lower Jurassic, which laid the foundation for further expand the shale gas reserve in Qaidam Basin; In the north of Bogda Mountains, “JZK-1” revealed clues of heavy oil, southward expanded the exploration area of the Permian Lucaogou Formation, which provided possibilities of breakthroughs in “Bogda mountain” with new clues and new directions; Cleared the “chang7-lchang10” stratigraphic distribution characteristics in Ordos Basin, preliminary proved that the “chang7” and the “chang9” have good exploration potential on unconventionals; Picked out favorable shale gas development segment in Lower Paleozoic strata in Southeast Sichuan Province; Comprehensive research of evaluation and accumulation conditions of petroleum in Upper Paleozoic in the Lower Yangtze region shows that shale oil and gas, tight oil and gas has good prospects of exploration and 3 favorable areas were selected; Selected 2 shale gas potential areas in Shimen-Cili and Ciyantang, Northwest Hunan, through the implementation of two-dimensional seismic exploration, 2 favorable target areas were found; Launched a national shale gas blocks evaluation; Metallogenic prospect of unconventional energy and mineral studies focused on coalbed methane, oil shale, oil sands, initially make the unconventional energy minerals potential area clear, plotted a national distribution map with 1︰ 5 million scale on 2 oil shale, oil sands and coal-bed methane resources i.

The aspects of Gas hydrates and Marine Geology:

Found gas hydrate in Qilian Mountain permafrost zone, which expanded its distribution of resources, and not only verified the validity of geological, geophysical and geochemical prospecting multidisciplinary methods to find resource, but also confirmed the gas hydrate reservoir control factors and an initial understanding of the accumulation mechanism; The “QK-6” and “QK-7” test wells of Gas Hydrate discovered the shallow gas resources in Qiangtang Basin for the first time, providing new clues finding gas hydrate; It’s revealed anomalies of hydrocarbon gases in Mohe permafrost region, pointing out a direction for hydrate exploration. several hydrocarbon gases anomaly zone were discovered from “MK-2” in this area, demonstrating a broad perspect of “Mohe” permafrost hydrate exploration area; First proposed the “Qilian Mountain” permafrost gas hydrate reservoir accumulation theory and established hydrocarbon resource, migration and frozen soil coupling mechanism of accumulation, which is expected to be a “geological eye” on Gas Hydrate Drilling deployment; Systematically reviews the main characteristics of petroleum geology of sedimentary basins offshore, further enriches the theory of terrestrial generation of oil.

2015年工作部署 2015 work deployment

重中之重工作:

一是北方油气新区调查取得重大发现或突破;二是南方页岩气调查取得重大发现或突破;三是支撑服务油气和页岩气勘查开发体制改革。

重点工作:

一是推进地质调查与科学研究一体化,大力提升科技创新能力,推进石油地质学科建设;二是创新服务型地质调查机构典范;三是建立主要含油气盆地地质信息系统,启动建立全球油气资源信息中心。

2015年预期成果:

初步查明南方页岩气资源家底、北方中小盆地中-古生界、羌塘盆地油气资源地质条件;南方页岩气工程圈定页岩气远景区10个,有利目标区8个,提交新区资料包8个;在北方新区新层系圈定油气远景区10个,勘查区块3个;提交煤层气、油页岩、油砂等非常规远景区10个,有利目标区5个,勘探区块3个;建立3个不同类型和层系的页岩气勘查示范基地,促进100亿立方米产能实现;新区新层系和页岩气取得2~3项重要发现和突破,拉动风险勘探;初步形成复杂构造海相页岩气、低成熟陆相页岩油气、海陆过渡相“三气”成藏地质理论;初步形成页岩气勘查评价、地球物理”甜点”识别与预测、选区评价等方法技术和标准体系;建立特色非常规油气地质重点实验室。

Critical work:

1) Making a major discovery or breakthrough in Northern China; 2) Making a major discovery or breakthrough of shale gas in northern China; 3) Supporting the system revolution of both conventional and unconventional petroleum exploration.

Important task:

1) Promoting the integration of geological survey and scientific research, enhancing scientific and technological innovation, advancing petroleum geology discipline construction; 2) Becoming a service-oriented geological survey agency; 3) Establishing geological information system covering major oil and gas basins, starting global oil and gas resources information center.

2015 Expected results:

Master the geological conditions of oil and gas resources in Qiangtang Basin, small basins in Northern China and the reserves of shale gas resources in the South; delineate 10 shale gas potential areas, 8 target areas, submit 8 New District information packages; pick out 10 oil and gas potential areas and 3 exploration blocks in new strata in new area of Northern China; submit 10 potential areas including CBM, oil shale, oil sands and other unconventional resources, 5 target areas and 3 exploration blocks; establish 3 different types of shale gas demonstration bases in different strata, promoting the realization of 10 billion cubic meters capacity; make 2~3 breakthroughs in shale gas, new areas and new strata, driving venture exploration; preliminarily form reservoir accumulation theories of marine shale with complex structure, low-mature terrestrial facies shale and transitional shale.

Form tentative standards and technical system of evaluation of shale gas exploration, identification of “sweet spots” by geophysical methods, evaluation methods of area selection. Establish the key Laboratory of unconventional oil and gas.